Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

The Atmosphere: El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO) Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (MISO) Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Normal Modes Gravity Waves
Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Polar Vortex
Jet Streams Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Convection Evaporation
Wind Charts Wind Walls Windstorms Other Winds
Thunderstorms Squall Lines Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence
Tornadoes The Coriolis Effect Hot Towers Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons
Precipitation Atmospheric Rivers Meteotsunamis Rainbows
Green flashes The Carnegie Curve Aerosols Atmospheric Circulation
Monsoons Blocking Teleconnections Pink Noise
Forcing Factors Feedbacks Haze Heatwaves
The Land Desertification Droughts Dust and Sandstorms
Dunes Wildfires, Bushfires, Peat Fires, Coal Seam Fires, Postfire Debris Flows Floods Inundated Land
Soil Moisture Thermal Springs Mudslides & Landslides Wood Cascades
The Cryosphere: Properties of Water, Ice & Snow Snowpack & snowmelt Avalanches
Ice Caps Ice Ages Glaciers Glacial Cycles
Interglacial Periods Seas & Oceans: Icebergs Ice Sheets & Ice Shelves
Thermohaline Circulation & named local currents Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Equatorial Thermocline
Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters Undersea Blue Holes
Ocean Minimum and Dead Zones Gyres Rifts and Seamounts Water Waves
Rogue Waves Tsunamis Waterspouts Wind Setdown
Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Tides Tidal Flats Sea Level Rise (SLR)
The Biosphere: Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event Tipping Points
Mass Extinction Events The Solid Earth: Elastodynamic Waves Electro-Magnetism:
Properties of Electro-Magnetism Schumann Resonances