Over the last three hundred years , science has successfully divided, separated and conquered Nature by reducing its inherent complexity into a number of simplified 'silos' and 'stovepipes'. The goal of the ICES project is to re-integrate such simplified specializations back into an holistic whole. When two or more specializations overlap and interact with each other mathematically, we refer to them as being 'coupled'. Below is a discussion of the basic couplings found within today's Earth System Models. Many more such couplings must be researched and developed however, since all things in Nature are in fact coupled and integrated at some level: