Detection of a Climate Change Signal in Extreme Heat,Heat Stress, and Cold in Europe From Observations

We demonstrate that onaverage across Europe the number of days with extreme heat and heat stress has more than tripled andhot extremes have warmed by 2.3◦C from 1950–2018. Over Central Europe, the warming exceeds thecorresponding summer mean warming by 50%. Days with extreme cold temperatures have decreasedby a factor of 2–3 and warmed by more than 3◦C, regionally substantially more than winter meantemperatures.