Lakes, Rivers, Deltas and Groundwater

Water exists in many forms and plays a multitude of different roles in the on-going evolution of the planet. The totality of all water is known as the hydrosphere. Hydrology is the science of water.

WMO: State of Global Water Resources








The top 100 global water questions

Groundwater: a hidden influence on river shape

Climate change effects on groundwater resources

How does groundwater pumping affect streamflow

Dyes & isotopes track groundwater from sink to spring

Mapping groundwater's influence on the world's oceans

Valuing Water Initiative - better decisions impacting water

The UN Water Developoment Report 2021 - valuing water

Groundwater flow may contribute to submarine permafrost thaw

NASA scientists complete first global survey of freshwater fluctuation

Multple stable states in hydrological models: an ecohydrological investigation

Recent changes in land water storage and its contribution to sea level variations

Advances in data analysis and its geoethical implications in groundwater management

A system-based approach to water is a necessary condition to address new climate-water risks

UN: a global synopsis of groundwater science and transboundary management    (Analysis Report)

Satellite remote sensing for water resource management: supporting development in data poor regions 



USGS on lakes 

10 largest lakes in the world

Global warming harms lakes   

Taking stock of the world's lakes

Turning climate change data into policy is no easy feat

Global lake warming trend threatens freshwater specie

Subarctic lakes are drying up at a rate not seen for 200 years

Human actvities trigger hypoxia in freshwaters around the globes

New lake surface temperature data base will help in the study of climate change

After decades of clean-up attempts, world's lakes still suffer from phosphorous pollution

UN global synopsis of lakes sciencs and transboundary management  (Analysis Report)

Main Processes:




Erosion has a point and an edge     

River & Stream Systems, Catchment Basins:    


More on rivers    

Rivers from space    

Tracking river flows from space 

Extreme events in running waters

Global extent of rivers and streams

A universal law for the 'blood of the Earth'

Measuring protection of the world's rivers

A sharper look at the world's rivers and catchments

Global surface area of rivers and streams is 45% higher than previously thought

River measurements:

A new index to quantify river fragmentation

A new index to quantify longitudonal river fragmentation: conservation and management implications

River CO2 emissions, effect of warming & ckimate change:  

CO2 emissions change with size of streams and rivers

Impact of warming climate doesn't always translate to streamflow

Study finds stream temperatures don't parallel warming climate trend

Study finds rivers and streams release more greenhouse gas than all lakes

A hybrid model for river water temperature as a function of air temperature and discharge        

Impact of climate change on river flow related to the impact on mean annual runoff? A global-scale analysis

River Biodiversity & Ecology:

The water is wider

The mathematics of braided rivers

Desert streams: deceptively simple

Cracking the problem of river growth

How do healthy rivers benefit society?

Morphodynamics: rivers beyond steady state

Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity

Researchers introduce macrosystems approach to study stream ecology

River bottoms, sands, sediments, gravels & boullders:

Rivers flow differently over gravel beds

How are river flow sediment pulses generated?

River sediments, a dynamic reserve of pollutants

Boulders limit transport of sand and gravel in steep rivers

Chemical composition of suspended sediments in World Rivers: new insights from a new database

Impacts of river engineering pn river channel behavior: implications for managing downstream flood risk

River Dams, Spillways and Restortaion:

Undamming rivers

Restored streams take 25 years or longer to recover

Spillways can divert sand from river to rebuild wetlands

Rivers recover natural conditions quickly following dam removal

Dams destabilize river food webs: lessons from the Grand Canyon

Sediment trapped behind dams makes them 'hot spots' for greenhouse gas emissions

River Watersheds, Catchments and Basins:

The shape of watersheds

The physics of river prediction

Science-based tools enhance waste catchment management

UN: A global synopsis of river basin science and transboundary management   (Analysis Report)

Analysis of river basin-based power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

River Deltas and Estuaries:

Predicting the shape of river deltas

Restoring sedimentology of river deltas

Scientists urge protection of world's deltas    

How do you reduce disaster risk in river deltas

Estuaries may face increased parasitism as sea levels rise

Sudden shifts in the course of a river on a delta may be predicted

World's large river deltas continue to degrade from human activity

Rivers below sea level:

Mapping a river beneath the sea


North America:


Canada's Great Basin

NASA Finds Russian Runoff Freshening Canadian Arctic

The Mackenzie River Basin (Rosenberg International Forum)

A century of hydrological variability and trends in the Fraser River Basin


Colorado River: the American Nile

US River chart     Another US river chart

Underwater forest off the coast of Alabama

Historic low stand of Great Salt Lake, Utah: I

NASA studies a rarity: growing Louisiana deltas

Study corrects misconceptions of Great Lakes evaporation

Colorado River delta greener after engineered pulse of water

Visualizing California's changing delta with Stanford and KQED

The deceptively simple plan to replenish California's groundwater    

Arizona - We pump too much groundwater, and rivers are in danger

Climate-driven shifts in sediment chemistry enhance methane production in northern lakes

Modeling the Mississippi: LSU researchers study methods to use river sediment to repair the coast

Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco bay-delta-river system in a century of climate change

Response of ice cover on shallow lakes of the North Slope of Alaska to contemporary climate conditions

Analysis ong-term ternds in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the USA

Central America:

Yucutan cenotes

South America:

CO2 emissions along the Lower Amazon River

Pre-Inca canal system uses hillsides as sponges to store water

River plumes near the Equator such as the Congo and the Amazon have major effects on oceans

Understanding the abrupt 2010–11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

Africa & Midlle East:

Dire and drier future for Lake Victoria

Africa: new urgency to rethink dam projects

Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

Opportunities for hydrologic research in the Congo Basin, Africa

Mapping groundwater recharge in Africa from ground observations - implications for water security

Middle East: 

After it "died" once, will Dead Sea die again

Nile River may be older than previously thought

The eternal Nile is even more ancient than we thought

Assessing the impacts of climate change on the River Nile

Adapting to climate-change induced water stress in the Nile Basin

The battle for water: Assessing the Nile's flow a tricky task for Egypt

Assessing land deformation and sea encroachment in the Nile Delta



Ground Water Disappearing in China

Through flood and drought: reconstructing the Yellow River

Humans have been changing Chinese environment for 3,000 years

Quantifying the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the thermal dynamics of the Yangtze River

Analysis of ALOS PALSAR InSAR data for mappinmg water level changes in Yellow River delta wetlands


India's daunting challenge: the Ganges River

Global surveys of reservoirs and lakes from satellites and regional application to the Syrdarya river basin

Southeast Asia:

Southeast Asia's most critical river is entering unchartered waters

China hydropower dams in Mekong River give shocks to 60 million

USAID Mekong ARCC climate change impact and adaptation study

Cambodia's biggest lake is running dry, taking forests and fish with it

Detection of the timing and duration of snowmelt in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya

Integrating climate change into regional disaster risk management at the Mekong River Commission

Hydrological cycle in South and Southeast Asia river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments


Great Artesian Basin (Australia)

Australian lake untouched by climate change

Greens threaten to pull plug on Murray-Darling Basin plan   

Australia: Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRACK)

Integrated river watch system for disaster risk reduction planned

The origins and future of Lake Eyre and the Murray-Darling Basin

Assessing change in floodplain wetland condition in the Murray Darling Basin 

Response of the Lower Ord River and estuary to changes to flow and sediment and nutrient loads  


Britain's urban rivers bounce back 

Restoring Europe's Rivers website

Territorial cohesion and water management in Europe: the spatial perspective 

Room for rivers: risk reductions by enhancing the the flood conveyance capacity of Netherland's rivers