Landscape formations

The land and soil beneath our feet has been either laid down, built up, or exuded over millions of years. The mapping and naming of its main formations, and a description of the processes involved is covered by the articles below:

Events in geological time:

Geological eras

Geological time scales

Divisions of geologic time

Earth's past gives clues to future changes

Buckling an orogen: the Cantabrian orocline

The geological time spiral - a path to the past

Why do intercontinental basins subside longer

Early Earth less hellish than previously thought

Did global glaciation cause the Great Unconformity?

Study questions dates for cataclysms on early moon, Earth

New research improves understanding of ancient landscapes

Noble gas constraints on the origin and evolution of Earth's volatiles

Caltech-led team debunks theory on end of "Snowball Earth" ice age

New test adds to scientists' understanding of Earth's history, resources

New study shows: shows: large landmasses existed 2.7 billion years ago

Geologists prove early Tibetan Plateau was larger than previously known

Early Earth may have been prone to deep freezes, says CU-Boulder study

Earth was barren, mountainless and almost entirely underwater 4.4 billion years ago 

The Anthropocene:

The onset of the Anthropocene

Archaeology and the Anthropocene

We should not fight nature but join forces

Green infrastructure and territorial cohesion

Frontiers in geosystems: solving the puzzles

The Paleoanthropocene - the beginnings of anthrpogenic change

Landscapes in the Anthropocene: state of the art and future directions

Human bioturbation, and the subterranean landscape of the Anthropocene

We've created 208 new minerals: time for a new, human-influenced Anthropocene epoch?

The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

Land cover and land use changes and their Impacts on hydroclimate, ecosystems and society

Landscape configuration is the driver of impacts on water quality associated with agricultural exapansion

Social pressure on land & soil:

The value of land

International Year of Soils 2015

Human pressure on land is increasing, shows world map

World's soil resources: human pressure reaching critical limits

World losing 2,000 hectares of farm soil daily to salt-induced degradation

Geological structures:

Open topography

The Layered Earth

Going with the flow?

Global lithography map

Mother Earth gets undressed

An online guide to sequence stratigraphy

Resources for teaching structural geology

Teaching geomorphology in the 21st Century

Taking the pulse of the Earth's surface systems

Monitoring land subsidence from satellite      

Laser beams brighten prospects for cave science

Formed by megafloods, this place fooled scientists for decades

From rivers to landslides: charting the slopes of sediment transport 

Study finds order in the apparent randomness of Earth's evolving landscape

Investing in landscapes for integrated, inclusive and climate-resilient development 

What lies beneath? New survey technique offers detailed picture of our changing landscape 

Main landscape structures:

Valleys    Rifts   Volcanoes  Structural Basin    Sedimentary Basin    Drainage Basin    Plains   Plateau

Main landscape processes:




State of Flux

Will Earth's grandest canyon keep getting grander

Links between physical and chemical and weathering inferred from a borehole through the CZ 

Uncertainty in silicate mineral weathering rate estimates: source partitioning and policy implications


Raindrops hitting the slopes

Megafloods - what they leave behind

Geochemical 'fingerprints' leave evidence that megafloods eroded steep gorge



More on Glaciation



Teaching sedimentary geology 

The ups and downs of sediments

The largest delta plain in Earth's history

Researchers' chance viewing of river cutoff forming provides rare insight

Sink holes:

The science of sinkholes

Subsurface imaging sheds light on Dead Sea sinkholes

The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

Land Subsidence:


Tectonics    Subduction    Earthquakes    Ground motion    Rupture    Liquefaction 

Is this the underground Everest?

Tiny kinks record ancient quakes

Uplifting news in the world of geology

Self-healing landscape: landslides after earthquakes

Landslides linked to plate tectonics create the steepest mountain terrain

River deep, mountain high - new study reveals clues to lifecycle of worlds iconic mountains



The Scandanavian landscape

Managing the land in a changing climate (UK)     

Landscape processes and landsccape quality in Romania


The lost world

More evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon

Mysterious US midcontinent rift is a geological hybrid

Bend in Appalachian mountain chain finally explained

European colonists dramatically increased North American erosion rates

The big picture: A lithospheric cross-section of the North American continent     

Association between localized geohazards in West Texas and human actions recognized by Sentinel-1A/B


Beijing sinking more than 10 cm per year

Ancient micro-continent under the Indian Ocean identified

Imaging land subsidence induced  by groundwater extraction in Beijing using satellite radar interferometry

Wind erosion in Qaidam basin: Implications for tectonics, paleoclimate, and the source of the Loess Plateau


Dazzled by Australia's precious opals 

Mining and minerals industry professionals in AUS - adapting to climate risks and extreme weather