Sunspots, Solar Flares, CMEs, Solar Wind, Space Weather

The solar cycle, sunspots:


Solar cycle

The sunspot cycle

Travelling sunspots

NASA Part 1   Part 2

Here Comes the Sun    

Solar cycle prediction

400 years of sunspots

Solar minimum is coming

The shape of the sunspot cycle 

The mystery of the absent sunspots 

The classification of X-ray solar flares

The Sun follows the rythm of the planets

Scientist explains sun's magnetic reversal 

The weak solar cycle 24 and its consequences

Polarity flip: physicists monitoring huge solar event

The Sun also flips: 11-year solar cycle wimpy, but peaking

Sun's magnetic fields best at forecasting solar cycle peaks

September 2017's intense solar activity viewed from space

Researchers discover new clues to determining the solar cycle

What the sudden death of solar cycles can tell us about the nature of the solar interior

Mechanism of explosions and plasma jets associated with sunspot formation revealed

Observing the quiet sun: a weak cycle offers the opportunity to expanding solar understanding

Maunder Minimum:

Maunder Minimum    

Real risk of Maunder Minimum 'Little Ice Age'

Maunder Minimum and climate change: have historical records aided current research?

Gleissberg Cycle:

Gleissberg Cycle    

The Solar Wolf-Gleissberg Cycle  and its influence on the Earth

Signature of Hale and Gleissberg solar cycles in the geomagnetic actvity

Long-period cycles of the Sun's activity recorded in direct solar data and proxies

Solar Irradiance:

Evolution of Solar flux

NASA is tracking electron beams from the Sun

Solar activity reduces radiation exposure in the air

Wayward field lines challenge solar radiation model

Sun provides Earth with less energy than we thought 

NASA uses deep learning to monitor the Sun's UV emission

Electric 'tornadoes' in space drive disturbances down to Earth

Several NASA spacecraft track energy through space     Video

Solar irradiance variability: comparison of models and measurements

Visualizing how much energy the sun shines onto Earth: a thought experiment

A deep learning virtual instrument for monitoring extreme UV solar spectral irradiance

Solar Cycle and Earth's Climate:

The role of the Sun in climate forcing

Solar variability and terrestrial climate

Sun not a key driver of climate change

Low solar activity just marginally cools the climate

No evidence for planetary influence on solar activity

Scientific assessmant of solar Induced climate change

Calm solar cycle prompts questions about impact on Earth

Toward an understanding of Earth-affecting solar eruptions

Sun dial-down: looming weak solar max may herald frosty times

Intensifying cosmic rays, grand solar minimum and Earth's climate

The effects of solar variability on Earth's climate: a workshop report

Influences of the 11-year solar cycle on the tropical atmosphere and oceans

New sunspot analysis shows rising global temperatures not linked to solar activity

A grand solar minimum would barely make a dent in human caused global warming

Rhodes Fairbridge and the idea that the Solar System regulates the Earth’s climate

The solar influence on the probability of relatively cold UK winters in the future

Evidence of recent causal decoupling between solar radiation and global temperature

High correlations between solar actvity and the Earth's averaged surface temperature

Corrected sunspot history: climate change since the Industrial Revolution not due to natural solar trends   

Solar Flares, Solar Storms, CMEs:

Solar storms

Solar tornadoes

Storms from the Sun

Coronal Mass Ejections

Protective storm in space

Tracking solar eruptions in 3D

The secret Lives of solar flares

Magnetic tangles drive solar wind

Solar explosions inside a computer

Looking into the heart of a solar storm

VLA yields new insights on solar flares

What does it take to be an X-class flare?

The difference between flares and CMEs

New light shed on explosive solar activity

Scientists probe the calm after solar storms

SDO provides first sightings of CME formation

New model for speed and motion of solar flares

Link  between CMEs and the Sun's interior motion

Tracking a solar eruption through the Solar System

Solar storms can drain electrical charge above Earth 

Large solar storms 'dodge' detection systems on Earth

Astronomers find solar storms behave like supernovae

Scientists shed light on riddle of Sun's explosive events 

Fierce 'superflares' from the Sun zapped an infant Earth

Citizen scientists discover cyclical pattern of complexity in solar storms

Scientists shed light on how solar blasts accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light

Scientists complement space missions by reproducing the dynamics behind astronomical shocks

Discovering a previously unknown mechanism that halts solar eruptions before they blast into space   

Recent history:

Rare 2014 solar flare and CME

Mapping the journey of a giant CME

Solar storm near Earth caused by fast CM

Sun's loops are displaying an optical illusion

Near miss, the solar superstorm of July 2012

SDO sees massive filament erupt from the Sun

2012 near miss solar storm should be a wake up call

Solar storms trigger surprising phenomena close to Earth

Telescope on NASA's SDO collects its 100 millionth image

A first for NASA's IRIS: observing a giant eruption of solar material

Solar flares disrupted radio comms during Sept'17 hurricane season relief effort 

Historical Events:

The geomagnetic blitz of September 1941

Massive solar flare could have caused 8th Century radiation burst

Evidence for a Solar flare cause of the Pleistocene mass extinction

Multiradionuclide evidence for the solar origin of the cosmic-ray events of AD 774/5 and 993/4

Influence of a Carrington-like event on the atmospheric chemistry, temperature and dynamics: revised

Solar Wind:

Solar wind     

New insights into solar wind 

Electric moon jolts the solar wind

Zooming in on interplanetary shocks 

A new form of solar wind: Earth wind

Solar wind energy source discovered

Spotting the source of slow solar wind

Why the solar wind is rhombic-shaped

Turbulent eddies may warm the solar wind

Comet's tail may shed light on solar wind heating

Scientists get first glimpse of solar wind as it forms 

Understanding the turbulent nature of the solar wind

Cluster helps solve mysteries of geomagnetic storms

Magnetic turbulence trumps collisions to heat solar wind

NASA decyphering the mysterious math of the solar wind  

China's climate-change scientists find links to solar winds 

For the first time, spacecraft catch a solar shockwave in the act

Relativistic electrons generated at Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock

Cluster mission indicates turbulent eddies may warm the solar wind

Researchers recreate the Sun's solar wind and plasma 'burps' on Earth

Norwegian study of interaction of solar wind and Earth's upper atmosphere

Energy dissipated by Alfven waves in a polar coronal hole: evidence that waves drive the fast solar wind  

Measurements of cross-shock potential, ion reflection & electron heating at interplanetary shock by MMS   

Solar Weather, Space Weather:


Space weather

What is space weather? 

NOAA space weather scales

Global eruption rocks the Sun 

Protecting Earth from space weather

US prepares for extreme space weather

Space weather and geomagnetic storms

A river of plasma, guarding against the Sun

Thermodynamic origins of kappa distributions

The heart of space weather observed in action

The Sun's coronal tail wags its photospheric dog

Electrons trapped in kinetic scale field line resonances

Turbulence brings together Germany, Ukraine & Russia

Who turned out the lights? The coming mega sun storm 

Space weather gains national and international attention

A lightning strike in Africa helps take the pulse of the Sun 

Lunar orbiters discover source of space weather near Earth

A new method for 3D reconstructions of eruptive events on Sun

Researchers in the Antarctic discover new facets of space weather

Probability of catastrophoc geomagnetic storm lower than estimated

Electromagnetic waves linked to particle fallout in Earth's atmosphere

THEMIS discovers new process that protects Earth from space weather

First sightings of solar flare phenomena confirm 3D models of space weather

New NASA Van Allen probes observations helping to improve space weather models

The interplanetary magnetic field influences mid-latitude surface atmospheric pressure

Scientist receives patent for innovative technique for measuring space weather phenomena                    

First observations of the disruption of the Earth's foreshock wave field during magnetic clouds

Space weather forecast & prediction:

NOAA's space weather

UK Space Weather Centre

Sneak attacks from the Sun

ESA space stuational awareness

US Space Weather Prediction Center

UK Met Office opens 'solar storm' centre        

NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center

Europe spotlights space weather hazards

Solar storms: regional forecasts set to begin

Discovery offers a way to predict solar flares

Space weather from a Southern point of view

Solar weather event modelling and prediction

Historic space weather could clarify what's next

New model will help predict several solar phenomena

internet radio provides musical space-weather reports

New tools for predicting arrival, impact of solar storms 

Scientists explore better way of foecasting space weather

Finnish space weather center PECASUS begins operation

Space weather reports on Internet radio from NASA's LRO

Space weather challenge and forecasting of Rossby waves

Satellite network preps to help predict stormy space weather

New system could predict solar flares, give advanced warning

Space weather forecasting takes inspiration from meteorology

New solar wind model could improve space weather forecasts

US space weather research could improve hazard preparation

Oslo - physicists use 20 new satelltes to forecast space weather

EU: space weather and critical infrastructures - findings and outlook 

New tool could track space weather 24 hours before reaching Earth

Cluster reveals inner workings of  Earth's cosmic particle accelerator

Space weather challenge and forecasting implications of Rossby waves

Heartbeat of the Sun: prediction of solar activity on a millenium timescale

Space weather center to add world's first 'ensemble forecasting' capability

New insights into the physics of stormy space weather that can create havoc on Earth

New space weather forecasting model going operational with National Weather Service

Satellte measurements of the Earth's magnetosphere promise better space weather forecasts

Quantifying the economic value of space weather forecasting on power grids: an economic study

Economic damage caused by solar weather:      

Space weather and rail 

Preparing for solar storms 

Space weather's effects on satellites

The effects of space weather on aviation

Getting ready for the nextbig solar storm

Solar flares increase radiation risk on commercial aircraft

Concern grows over possibility of a massive power surge

Warning system to protect astronaughts from solar storms

Stormy space weather puts equatorial regions' power at risk

Probability of catastrophic geomagnetic storm lower than estimated

Space weather, Earthscope, and protecting the national electrial grid

Geomagnetic Induced Currents (GICs): the bane of technolgy-dependent societies

Space weather causes years of radiation damage to satellites using electric propulsion

An 'Internet Apocalypse' could ride to Earth with the next solar storm, new research warns