Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Thermocline El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO)
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Southern Annular Mode (SAM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)
Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ)
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves Jet Streams
Polar Vortex Wind Walls Convection Evaporation
Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other Windstorms Other Winds
Thunderstorms Squall Lines Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence
Tornadoes The Coriolis Effect Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons Precipitation
Waterspouts Atmospheric Rivers Meteotsunamis Hot Towers
Lightning & Sprites Rainbows The Carnegie Curve Aerosols
Clouds & Contrails Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons Blocking
Teleconnections Pink Noise Forcing Factors Feedbacks
Desertification Dust and Sandstorms Wildfires, Bushfires & Peat Fires Haze
Heatwaves Floods & Droughts Inundated Land Thermal Springs
Mudslides & Landslides Properties of Water & Ice Avalanches Ice Caps
Glaciers Glacial Cycles Icebergs Ice Shelves
Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters Ocean Dead Zones
Rifts and Seamounts Subduction Earthquakes & Seismic Waves Water Waves
Tsunamis Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Sea Level Rise (SLR) Ice Ages
Interglacial Periods Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event Ozone Hole
Solar Irradiance Tipping Points Mass Extinction Events Earth's spin axis
Magnetism & Electromagnetism Schumann Resonances Auroras Airglow - skyglow - STEVE
Magnetic Pole Shift Geomagnetic Reversal Geomagnetic Portals Magnetic reconnection
Milankovitch Cycles