Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Thermocline El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO)
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Southern Annular Mode (SAM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)
Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ)
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves Jet Streams
Polar Vortex Wind Walls Convection Evaporation
Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other Windstorms Other Winds
Thunderstorms Squall Lines Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence
Tornadoes Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons Precipitation Waterspouts
Atmospheric Rivers Hot Towers Lightning & Sprites Rainbows
The Carnegie Curve Aerosols Clouds & Contrails Atmospheric Circulation
Monsoons Blocking Teleconnections Pink Noise
Forcing Factors Feedbacks Desertification Dust and Sandstorms
Wildfires, Bushfires & Peat Fires Haze Heatwaves Floods & Droughts
Inundated Land Thermal Springs Mudslides & Landslides Properties of Water & Ice
Avalanches Ice Caps Glaciers Glacial Cycles
Icebergs Ice Shelves Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers
Undersea Craters Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts Subduction
Earthquakes & Seismic Waves Water Waves Tsunamis Seiches (Lake Tsunamis)
Sea Level Rise (SLR) Ice Ages Interglacial Periods Gaia Hypothesis
Great Oxygenation Event Ozone Hole Solar Irradiance Tipping Points
Mass Extinction Events Earth's spin axis Magnetism & Electromagnetism Schumann Resonances
Auroras Airglow - skyglow - STEVE Magnetic Pole Shift Geomagnetic Reversal
Geomagnetic Portals Magnetic reconnection Milankovitch Cycles