Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Thermocline El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO)
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Southern Annular Mode (SAM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)
Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ)
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves Jet Streams
Polar Vortex Wind Walls Convection Evaporation
Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other Windstorms Other Winds
Thunderstorms Squall Lines Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence
Tornadoes The Coriolis Effect Hot Towers Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons
Precipitation Waterspouts Atmospheric Rivers Meteotsunamis
Lightning & Sprites Rainbows Green flashes The Carnegie Curve
Aerosols Clouds & Contrails Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons
Blocking Teleconnections Pink Noise Forcing Factors
Feedbacks Desertification Dust and Sandstorms Wildfires, Bushfires & Peat Fires
Haze Heatwaves Floods & Droughts Inundated Land
Thermal Springs Mudslides & Landslides Properties of Water & Ice Snowpack
Avalanches Ice Caps Glaciers Glacial Cycles
Icebergs Ice Sheets & Ice Shelves Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers
Undersea Craters Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts Subduction
Earthquakes & Seismic Waves Water Waves Elastodynamic Waves Tsunamis
Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Sea Level Rise (SLR) Ice Ages Interglacial Periods
Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event Ozone Hole Solar Irradiance
Tipping Points Mass Extinction Events Earth's spin axis Magnetism & Electromagnetism
Schumann Resonances Auroras Airglow - skyglow - STEVE Magnetic Pole Shift
Geomagnetic Reversal Geomagnetic Portals Magnetic reconnection Milankovitch Cycles